समास samāsa in Pāṇinian grammar- I

By Prof. Malhar Kulkarni   |   IIT Bombay
Learners enrolled: 82
This course introduces a reader of basics of Compounds and their treatment in the Pāṇinian grammar. It provides information related to the theorization, generation, identification and explanation of various types of Compounds and their numerous features in Sanskrit. The course focuses on one important type: तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa Compound. It will thus introduce more aspects of the grammar of Pāṇini to linguists, Indologists as well as to the Computer Scientists in particular who are interested in the process of Compounding as well as Multi-Word Expressions.

INTENDED AUDIENCE: Linguists, Indologists, Philosophers, Psychologists
Course Status : Upcoming
Course Type : Elective
Duration : 12 weeks
Start Date : 23 Jan 2023
End Date : 14 Apr 2023
Exam Date : 29 Apr 2023 IST
Enrollment Ends : 30 Jan 2023
Category :
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
Credit Points : 3
Level : Undergraduate

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1: What is a Compound (समास samāsa)? The concept of सामर्थ्य sāmarthya: व्यपेक्षा vyapekṣā and एकार्थीभाव ekārthībhāva, the concept of वृत्ति vṛtti, the concept of पूर्वपद pūrvapada and उत्तरपद uttarapada
Week 2: Types of Compounds (समास samāsa). The concept of विग्रह vigraha and नित्यसमास nityasamāsa, समास samāsa as a प्रातिपदिक prātipadika, लुक् luk, meaning of a समास samāsa, ऐकार्थ्य aikārthya, ऐकपद्य aikapadya and ऐकस्वर्य aikasvarya
Week 3: What is a तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa? Features of तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa, types of तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa, derivation of तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa
Week 4: Treatment of विभक्ति vibhakti तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa- द्वितीया dvitīyā, तृतीया tṛtīyā, चतुर्थी caturthī, पञ्चमी pañcamī, सप्तमी saptamī
Week 5: Treatment of सप्तमी saptamī, षष्ठी ṣaṣṭhī, एकदेश ekadeśa-Tatpuruṣa समास samāsa
Week 6: Treatment of कर्मधारय karmadhāraya and द्विगु dvigu, the concept of पुंवद्भाव puṁvadbhāva
Week 7: Treatment of उपपद upapada तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa
Week 8: Treatment of गति gati तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa, नञ् nañ तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa, प्रादि prādi तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa
Week 9: Suffixes added at the end of a तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa compound (समासान्त samāsānta प्रत्यय pratyaya)
Week 10: Non-deletion of cases (अलुक् aluk), Operations based on the compound (समासाश्रय-विधि samāsāśraya-vidhi)
Week 11: स्वर svara- accent on तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa Compounds
Week 12: Other operations like retroflex substitutions- षत्व ṣatva and णत्व ṇatva, Constituency structures of compounds, dependency relations within a Compound, Gender and number of the तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa compound, Ordering of words in the तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa Compound

Books and references


Instructor bio

Prof. Malhar Kulkarni

IIT Bombay
Malhar Kulkarni is a student of Pāṇini’s grammar and teaches it at IIT Bombay. Malhar Kulkarni studies Pāṇini’s grammar in the traditional way as well as historical, university way and has been teaching it in both ways for more than 20 years now. He continues to contribute to this tradition by writing in English as well as in Sanskrit. Notable amongst his Sanskrit contributions is Śabdasūtra, an unpublished original sūtra text on Grammar and Language.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: 29 April 2023 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 8 assignments out of the total 12 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Bombay. It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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