Steel Quality: Role of Secondary Refining & Continuous Casting

By Prof. Santanu Kr. Ray   |   IIT Madras
Learners enrolled: 307
Quality of steel plays an important role in imparting the specific application requirements to the product. Cleanliness as well as absence of defects are two broad facets of the quality of a steel product. Aim of this course is to give a brief introduction to the importance of secondary refining and continuous casting in achieving the desirable cleanliness and surface quality of cast and hot rolled steels

INTENDED AUDIENCE  : Undergraduate, post graduate and graduate students of Metallurgical and Materials
INDUSTRY SUPPORT   : All steel producers and users will be interested in this course
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Elective
Duration : 12 weeks
Category :
  • Metallurgy and Material science & Mining Engineering
Credit Points : 3
Level : Undergraduate/Postgraduate
Start Date : 24 Jan 2022
End Date : 15 Apr 2022
Enrollment Ends : 07 Feb 2022
Exam Date : 23 Apr 2022 IST

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1:Concept of steel quality , Typical examples of common defects
Week 2:Present scenario of quality demands , Application-specific requirements of residuals and NMIs
Week 3:Limitation of primary steelmaking , Importance of different secondary refining processes
Week 4:Requirement of Calcium injection , Cleanliness measures in tundish and mould
Week 5:Nature and distribution of exogenous entrapments in casting, their sources
Week 6:Role of caster & casting process on quality , Cast structure and dendrite size
Week 7:Role of mould oscillation , Effect of steel chemistry and segregation
Week 8:Deleterious effect of P and S , Role of strength & toughness of solid shell
Week 9:Factors responsible for bulging vis-a-vis depression behaviour , Brittle temperature regions for different steel grades
Week 10:Influence of secondary cooling on cast quality , Typical cracks and other defects
Week 11:Remedial measures to control quality issues , Grade-specific casting parameters
Week 12:Identification of genesis of quality problems through metallurgical investigation

Books and references

A.Ghosh , Secondary Steelmaking -- Principles & Applications , CRC Press , Florida ,
USA , 2001 M.M.Wolf , Continuous Casting , Vol.9 , Warrendale , PA, Iron & Steel Society, 1997

Instructor bio

Prof. Santanu Kr. Ray

IIT Madras
Dr. Santanu Kumar Ray has been the Steel Chair Professor in the department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering of IIT Madras since March 2016. He did his B.Tech ( Hons ), M.Tech and Ph.D , all from IIT Kharagpur . He spent 35 years at the R & D Centre of SAIL . For a brief period of 6 months he was the Principal of Seacom Engineering College in Kolkata. His areas of interests are commercial implementation of new developments in secondary refining and continuous casting of special and alloy steels.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: 23 April 2022 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 8 assignments out of the total 12 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Madras .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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