Oil Hydraulics and Pneumatics

By Prof. Somashekhar S   |   IIT Madras
Learners enrolled: 2011
Preamble: Fluid Power is the technology that deals with the generation, control, and transmission of power, using pressurized fluids. Both liquids and gases are considered fluids. Fluid power is the muscle of the industry used to push, pull, regulate, or drive virtually all the machines of modern industry. For example, fluid power steers and brakes automobiles, launches spacecraft, harvests crops, mines coal, drives machine tools, controls airplanes, processes food, drills teeth, and even transport and delivers drugs to the infected areas in the human body efficiently and effectively. In fact, it is almost impossible to find a manufactured product that hasn’t been fluid powered in some way at some stages of its production or distribution. Currently, a revolutionary change has taken place in the field of fluid power technology due to the integration of electronics as a control medium for fluid power components and systems. Due to the increased sophistication of fluid power and allied fields of engineering, the fluid power-driven machines are now able to generate more power and higher accuracy in speed, force, and position control. Hence this course is essential in engineering and technology to cope in modern industry to tackle a variety of problems and search for better solutions in power transmission and control.
Learning Objectives: This course provides a comprehensive introduction to fluid power, including both oil hydraulics and pneumatics, by focusing on the following learning objectives. Upon completion of a course, the student will
• Understand the underlying theoretical concepts
• Be familiar with the construction and function of the components
• Know how the components are selected and integrated into a system
• Understand the operation of basic circuits, and
• Know how to read basic circuits, troubleshoots and analyze  

All Engineering College Students, Professional of Industries and working scientists in R & D institutions
INDUSTRIES  SUPPORT     : BEML, HAL, VSSC, Eaton, Ashok Leyland, Caterpillar, L&T etc.
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Elective
Duration : 12 weeks
Category :
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Manufacturing Processes and Technology
Credit Points : 3
Level : Undergraduate/Postgraduate
Start Date : 24 Jan 2022
End Date : 15 Apr 2022
Enrollment Ends : 07 Feb 2022
Exam Date : 23 Apr 2022 IST

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1: Introduction to Oil Hydraulics and Pneumatics, Learning Objectives, Course Content, References, Power Transmission Methods, Merits, Demerits, Brief History, Basic Components. Research Challenges, Status and Developments: Stationary hydraulics and Mobile hydraulics

Week 2: Basic Laws and Symbols : Pascal's law, Hydraulic jack, Hydraulic brake , Pressure Intensifier, Bernoulli equation, Venturi, Torricelli theorem, Siphon, Continuity equation, Flow configuration, Concept of pressures, Gas laws and Numerical. Fluid Power Symbols for Hydraulic lines, Color Coding, Hydraulic Pumps, Hydraulic Motors, Cylinders, Air Compressors, Pneumatic Motors and Orifices, Filters, Check Valves, DCVs, Spool Actuation methods, PCV, Miscellaneous, Port Configurations

Week 3: Hydraulic Pumps, Classifications, Pumping theory, Ideal pump, pump losses, efficiency curve, Constructional features and Operations of External Gear pump, Internal Gear Pump, Gerotor Pump, Screw Pump and Vane Pumps

Week 4: Constructional features and Operations of Piston Pumps- Hand Pump, Bent axis axial piston pump, Swash plate axial piston pump, Radial piston pumps- Pump failure and cavitations, Pneumatic Control and Pneumatic Power Source: Air preparation, Compressor, Classification, Air Receiver and Control Methods ,Construction and operation of Single and Multi-stage Piston Pump, Rotary Vane Compressor, Twin Lobe Air compressor, Screw Compressor, Liquid Ring Compressor and Selection Criteria.

Week 5: Pneumatic Pressure Drop, Energy Loss and Cost Break Down in Air Preparation Process, Pressure Drop and its Effect , What causes Pressure Drop?, Minimising Pressure Drop, Air Distribution System- Sizing of Pipes, Tubes, Materials and Fittings, Important Air Flow Parameters, Pressure drop Predictions using Various Empirical Formulae and Nomogram, Best Practices for Compressed Air Piping System and Installation Tips, Air Dryers, Need for Air Dryer, Analysis of Moisture Removal from Air, Typical Air Drying Methods, Basic Types of Air Dryers, Construction and Operation of Refrigerated Air dyers, Absorption Dryer, Adsorption Dryer, Membrane Dryer, How to Choose the Right Air Dryer?

Week 6: Control Elements- Constructional details, Operations and Application areas of various types of Directional Control Valves, Pressure Control Valves and Flow Control Valve, Numerical

Week 7 : Actuators: Rotary and Linear Actuators - Types, Characteristics, Operations, Efficiencies, Torque and Power, Numerical

Week 8 : Subsystems: Reservoirs, Hydraulic Fluids, Seals, Filters, Accumulators, Maintenance

Week 9 : Circuit Design and Analysis: Development of Single Actuator Circuits, Development of Multiple Actuator Circuits, Cascade Method for Sequencing

Week 10: Hydrostatic Transmission and Control: Different Configurations and Analysis, Pump and Motor Characteristics

Week 11 : Servo and Proportional Valves: Constructional Details, Operations, and Applications

 Week 12: Role of Modeling and Simulation in Hydraulic Components- Case Studies

Books and references

1. Anthony Esposito. Fluid Power with Application, Pearson Education, inc, 2000.
2. John J Pippinger and Tyler Gregory Hicks. Industrial Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, 1979.
3. Dudley A. Pease and John J. Pippenger. Basic Fluid Power. Prentice-Hall 1987.
4. John S. Cundiff. Fluid Power Circuits and Controls: Fundamentals and Applications, CRC Press,2001.
5. Noah D. Manring and Roger C. Fales. Hydraulic
6. Herbert E. Merritt. Hydraulic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.USA, 1967.
7.Allen C. Morse. Electrohydraulic Servomechanisms.McGraw-Hill, 1963.
8.John Watton. Fluid Power Systems. Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.,1989.

Instructor bio

Prof. Somashekhar S

IIT Madras
Dr. Somashekhar S is currently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai. He has produced 11 Ph.D., 5 M.S. (By research), and 38 M.Tech. Students as of now. He has more than two decades of Teaching and Research Experience. He teaches Oil Hydraulics and Pneumatics, Microprocessors in Automation, Instrumentation, and Control, Mechatronics System Design, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing. He has published several research papers in International and National journals and conferences. Last but not least, he is a member of several professional bodies in India and abroad.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: 23 April 2022 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 8 assignments out of the total 12 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Madras .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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