Introduction to Machining and Machining Fluids

By Prof. Mamilla Ravi Sankar   |   IIT Tirupati
Learners enrolled: 708
Machining is one of the basic and very important courses for the mechanical undergraduate students. This process comes under the subtractive manufacturing processes where in material is removed. This course gives the basic understanding of the various machining processes and its physics. The mentioned syllabus is systematic order to understand gradually, importance of machining, machining region mechanism, tool signatures, tool life, multipoint machining processes, cutting fluid, cutting fluid emissions and its effect on human kind. This course also gives emphasis on cutting fluid emissions and its effect on operators, environment and water pollution. How to develop the eco-friendly cutting fluids as an alternative to commercial miner oils. Development of sustainable cutting fluids application techniques to improve the machining performance. This course is systemically arranged and taught in smooth as well as clear way so that students understand easily.

Intended Audience :  BE/B.Tech, ME/M.Tech, PHD (Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering). Faculty who teaches manufacturing.
Pre Requisites :  Nil.
Industries Support : Oil India Ltd., ONGC, TATA motors, ISRO, BARC, DRDL, NTPC, CMTI, CMERI, CGCRI, Grind Master, NRL
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Core
Duration : 8 weeks
Category :
  • Mechanical Engineering
Credit Points : 2
Level : Undergraduate/Postgraduate
Start Date : 24 Jan 2022
End Date : 18 Mar 2022
Enrollment Ends : 07 Feb 2022
Exam Date : 27 Mar 2022 IST

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1:
1.1 Introduction and Importance of Machining: Introduction to manufacturing, Top-down and bottom-up approaches, Machining and Various Machining Processes. 
1.2 Principles of Metal Cutting: Shear zone, Chip formation, chip thickness measurements, machining mechanics of ductile and brittle materials. 

Week 2
2.1 Cutting tool: Tool Geometry, Tool signature. 
2.2 Cutting forces and Cutting velocities : Cutting forces, Merchant Circle, Empirical Models, Chip thickness ratio, Cutting velocities, Strain rates, Mathematical formulations. 

Week 3
3.1 Tribology, Surface roughness in Machining: Chip-tool tribology, tool-workpiece tribology, Sticking and sliding zone, types of lubrication, Surface roughness, Materials removal rate, Machinability. 
3.2 Thermal Aspects of Machining: Cutting temperature, Measurement of temperature, heat generation, heat distribution, metallurgical and microstructural study. 

Week 4
4.1 Tool Wear and Tool life: Carter wear, flank wear, nose wear, other tool wears, tool life criteria. 
4.2 Tool Materials and Coatings: Coating materials, PVD, CVD, RF, Laser coatings, Tool texturing. 

Week 5
5.1 Cutting Fluids: Classification, Functions, Types of lubrication, Cutting fluid additives, Emissions, Health Hazards, Rheology and Biodegradability. 
5.2 Cutting fluid application: Standoff distance, angle of impingement, contact angle, area of cooling, Solid lubricants. 
5.3 Eco-friendly cutting fluids: Development of eco-friendly cutting fluids, bio degradation of these fluids, COD, BOD, HRT, Advantages of sustainable cutting fluids over mineral oil based cutting fluids. 

Week 6
6.1 Multipoint Machining Processes: Milling, Drilling, Broaching, Tapping, Sawing, Gear Cutting. 

Week 7
7.1 Abrasive machining processes: Grinding wheel specification, classification, Thermal aspects, Lapping, Honing, Super finishing, Drag finishing, vibratory finishing, Applications. 
7.2 Cutting fluids for abrasive machining processes: Cutting fluids in grinding, honing, super-finishing. 

Week 8:
8.1 Machining of Advanced Materials: Machining of Biomaterials, Aero Space materials, Smart Materials. 
8.2 Advances in Metal Cutting: Hard Machining, High Speed Machining, Diamond Turning, Double tool Machining, Machining with rotary tools, Thin wall machining, Laser Assisted Machining. 
8.3 Cutting fluids machining advanced materials: Cutting fluids for machining advanced materials, high speed machining, hard machining. 

Books and references

  1. M. C. Shaw, Metal Cutting, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2004.
  2. M. C. Shaw, Principles of Abrasive Processing, Oxford University Press, 1996.
  3. G. K. Lal, Introduction to Machining Science, New Age International Publishers, 2007
  4. G. Boothroyd and W. A. Knight, Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools, CRC-Taylor and Francis, 2006.
  5. A. Ghosh and A. K. Malik, Manufacturing Science, East West Press, 2010.
  6. P. H. Black, Metal Cutting Theory, McGraw Hill, 1961.
  7. Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) for Cutting and Grinding, Edited by:V.P. Astakhov and S. Joksch Certification Exam: The exam is optional for a fee

Instructor bio

Prof. Mamilla Ravi Sankar

IIT Tirupati
Dr. Mamilla Ravi Sankar is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati. He did his B.Tech from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, and M.Tech as well as PhD from IIT Kanpur. His research group is focus on Sustainable Manufacturing, Eco-friendly Cutting fluids, Coatings, Advanced Manufacturing, Tribology and Rheology. MRS Lab also involves in development of lab scale Innovations to Commercial Manufacturing Products. He has published over 30 research articles in internationally reputed journals, 2 Patents, 2 Edited Books and 6 Book chapters. He is recipient of prestigious awards such as Institution of Engineers India (IEI) Young Engineers Award-2015 in Production Engineering, Indian Society for Advancement in Materials and Process Engineering (ISAMPE)-2011 and finalist of Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) Young Engineer Award-2014. Apart from academic awards, he is also received Institute Blues (Outstanding Sports Personality) of IIT Kanpur for the year 2009.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: 27 March 2022 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 6 assignments out of the total 8 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Madras .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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