सन्धि sandhi in Paninian grammar

By Prof. Malhar Kulkarni   |   IIT Bombay
Learners enrolled: 409
About the course: This course introduces a reader of basics of सन्धि Sandhi (euphonic combinations) in Pāṇinian grammar. It aims  to teach the concept of सन्धि Sandhi in detail in accordance with the grammar of Pāṇini. This course also discusses in detail the derivation process of a sentence in accordance with the grammar of Pāṇini and highlights the place of सन्धि Sandhi in it. The course also discusses the concepts with various examples taken from different historical sources.

INTENDED AUDIENCE: Linguists, Indologists.
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Elective
Duration : 12 weeks
Category :
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
Credit Points : 3
Level : Undergraduate
Start Date : 25 Jul 2022
End Date : 14 Oct 2022
Enrollment Ends : 08 Aug 2022
Exam Date : 30 Oct 2022 IST

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1: The concept of सन्धि sandhi, Substitute, संहिता saṁhitā, अवसान avasāna, Internal and External, 3 levels in Pāṇinian grammar, स्थानिवद्भाव sthānivadbhāva.
Week 2: Process of Speech production, features of sounds, principle of homogeneity, principle of closest feature as  base of substitution (स्थानेऽन्तरतमः sthāne'ntaratamaḥ), phonetic explanation of सन्धि sandhi.
Week 3: अच् (vowel) सन्धि ac sandhi I- यण् yaṇ, अयवायाव ayavāyāva, अच् सन्धि ac sandhi II- गुण guṇa.
Week 4: अच् (vowel) सन्धि ac sandhi II- वृद्धि vṛddhi, पररूप pararūpa, सवर्णदीर्घ savarṇadīrgha, पूर्वरूप pūrvarūpa.
Week 5: Absence of अच् (vowel) सन्धि ac sandhi- प्रकृतिभाव prakṛtibhāva.
Week 6: हल् (consonant) सन्धि hal sandhi I- श्चुत्व ścutva, ष्टुत्व ṣṭutva, परसवर्ण parasavarṇa, पूर्वसवर्ण pūrvasavarṇa, अनुस्वार anusvāra.
Week 7: हल् (consonant) सन्धि hal sandhi II- Augments-आगमs āgamas, रुत्व rutva.
Week 8: विसर्ग सन्धि visarga sandhi-सत्व satva, षत्व ṣatva.
Week 9: सन्धि sandhi in the पदs padas, उत्व utva, यत्व yatva, रत्व ratva.
Week 10: Derivation process of a Sentence and सन्धि sandhi, असिद्ध asiddha and सन्धि sandhi.
Week 11: Treatment of Sandhi in modern European language grammars of Sanskrit, contact of Sanskrit grammar with European linguists, contribution of Pāṇinian grammar in articulatory phonetics,  Saussure and Pāṇinian grammar.
Week 12: सन्धि स्वर sandhi svara - accent based on Sandhi.

Books and references

1. The Aṣṭādhyāyī Sūtrapāṭha of Panini, with Vārtikas, Gaṇa, Dhātupāṭha, Pāṇinīya-śikṣā and Paribhāṣāpāṭha, second edition, edited by C. Sankara Rama Shastri, printed and published by The Shri Bala Manorama Press, Mylapore, Madras, 1937.

2. The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, translated into English by Shrish Chandra Vasu, Benares, 1897.

3. Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudī together with Bālamanoramā and Tattvabodhinī, edited by Pt Giridharasharma Caturveda and Parameshvarananda Sharma Bhaskar, Motilal Benarsidass, Vol. 1, 1991.

4. Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudī with an english translation by Shrish Chandra Vasu,

Instructor bio

Prof. Malhar Kulkarni

IIT Bombay
Malhar Kulkarni is a student of Pāṇini’s grammar and teaches it at IIT Bombay. Malhar Kulkarni studies Pāṇini’s grammar in the traditional way as well as historical, university way and has been teaching it in both ways for more than 20 years now. He continues to contribute to this tradition by writing in English as well as in Sanskrit. Notable amongst his Sanskrit contributions is Śabdasūtra, an unpublished original sūtra text on Grammar and Language.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: October 30, 2022 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 8 assignments out of the total 12 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Bombay .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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