VLSI Interconnects

By Prof. Sarang Pendharker   |   IIT Kharagpur
Learners enrolled: 2795
Interconnects are the wired connections between various devices and components in an integrated circuit. As the clock frequency and operating frequency of the electronic devices is increasing, going up to several GHz, the effects of these wired connection cannot be ignored anymore. In fact, the interconnect effects which include delays, timing jitters and cross-talk are expected to become bottleneck in further increase in the speed of electronic circuits. In this course we will investigate origin of several interconnect effects and explore techniques for electromagnetic and circuit modeling of these interconnect effects. The course is of importance for anyone interested in the high frequency circuit design and signal integrity issues in electronics and telecommunication industries.
INTENDED AUDIENCE: Senior UG, P.G., Ph.D in Dept. of ECE, EE.

PREREQUISITES: U.G. level course in electromagnetics or micorwave engineering or EM Waves.

INDUSTRY RELEVANCESignal integrity profile and Interconnect profile in leading electronics and semiconductor industries.
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Elective
Duration : 8 weeks
Category :
  • Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering
Credit Points : 2
Level : Undergraduate/Postgraduate
Start Date : 25 Jul 2022
End Date : 16 Sep 2022
Enrollment Ends : 08 Aug 2022
Exam Date : 25 Sep 2022 IST

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout

Week 1:  Introduction to VLSI Interconnects. Distributed RC interconnect model, Elmore delay, Elmore delay in interconnects, Elmore delay in RC tree and branched interconnects
Week 2: Equivalent circuit of RC interconnect, Scaling Effects, Delay mitigation in RC interconnects, RC interconnect simulation session, Inductive effects in interconnects
Week 3: Distributed RLC Interconnect model (Frequency domain analysis), Transmission line equations. When to consider the inductive effects?, The transfer function of an interconnect, Time-domain response of a lumped model RLC circuit
Week 4: Equivalent Elmore model for RLC interconnects (Distributed model), Two-pole model of RLC interconnects from ABCD parameters. Simulation of RLC interconnects. Origin of the skin effect, Effective resistance at high frequencies
Week 5: Equivalent circuit to simulate skin effect, Power dissipation due to interconnects, Optimum interconnect width for minimizing total power dissipation. Heating effects and thermal modelling, Compact Thermal modeling with equivalent electrical circuit.
Week 6: Electromigration in interconnects, Mitigation of electromigration. Capacitive coupling in interconnects. Cross-talk and timing jitters in two identical interconnects. Effects of cross-talk and timing jitters.
Week 7: Techniques for mitigation of cross-talk. ??Lecture-32: Matrix formulation of coupled interconnects. Coupled RLC interconnects, Decoupling of interconnects by diagonalization of matrix , Analysis of coupled interconnects: Examples
Week 8: Analysis of coupled interconnects: Examples-2, Simulation of RC coupled interconnects, Extraction of capacitance ,Extraction of inductance, Estimation of interconnect parameters from S parameters.

Books and references

  1. The course is primarily based on research publications. A list of journal publications for each topic will be given during the course.
  2. J. Davis and J. Meindl. Interconnect Technology and Design for Gigascale Integration. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2003.
  3. Jens Lienig and Matthias Thiele. Fundamentals of Electromigration-Aware Integrated Circuit Design. Springer, 2018.

Instructor bio

Prof. Sarang Pendharker

IIT Kharagpur
Prof. Sarang Pendharker received his M.Tech+Ph.D. Dual Degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India, in Dec. 2014. He has three years of postdoctoral research experience at University of Alberta, Canada. Currently he is an Assistant Professor in the Dept. of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. His research specialization is in the area of microwaves, photonics and electromagnetic wave theory. His current research interests are in innovating next generation of microwave/mmWave devices based on new optical physics phenomena, and in the integration of photonic and microwave technologies.

Course certificate

The course is free to enroll and learn from. But if you want a certificate, you have to register and write the proctored exam conducted by us in person at any of the designated exam centres.
The exam is optional for a fee of Rs 1000/- (Rupees one thousand only).
Date and Time of Exams: 25 September 2022 Morning session 9am to 12 noon; Afternoon Session 2pm to 5pm.
Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. If there are any changes, it will be mentioned then.
Please check the form for more details on the cities where the exams will be held, the conditions you agree to when you fill the form etc.


Average assignment score = 25% of average of best 6 assignments out of the total 8 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100

Final score = Average assignment score + Exam score

YOU WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR A CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If one of the 2 criteria is not met, you will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Kharagpur .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.

Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.

Once again, thanks for your interest in our online courses and certification. Happy learning.

- NPTEL team

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