Courses » Theory of Production Processes

Theory of Production Processes


The course focuses on understanding the science behind technology of primary production processes namely casting, forming and welding. Conventionally, the courses on manufacturing processes deal with study of operational procedures. However, it is desirable to know how any process occurs and the products are finally manufactured, the basic principles behind these processes are required to be highlighted. The course will make the students aware with the theoretical aspects of the different manufacturing processes mentioned above. The course has been divided into three sections namely casting, forming and welding, each being covered in 4 weeks of time. The underlying principles of solidification, fluidity, gating, risering, melting etc. will be covered in casting section whereas mechanics of metalworking, analysis of different metal working processes will be covered in the second section i.e. forming. In the third section i.e. welding, principles of welding processes, thermal effects, weldability etc. will be covered. The course will enable the students be conversant with working principles so that they can use the knowledge gained towards increasing the productivity of manufacturing industries in the long run.




PREREQUISITES: Introduction to manufacturing technology or manufacturing processes.

INDUSTRY SUPPORT: Manufacturing Industries where casting/forming/welding takes place, for example SAIL, BHEL, Foundry and Forge industries like HEC, Bharat Forge etc.

770 students have enrolled already!!


Dr. Pradeep K. Jha is presently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering at IIT Roorkee. He has been teaching the courses related to manufacturing technology and theory of production processes to undergraduate and postgraduate students for more than 12 years. He is actively involved in research work related to production processes, especially casting processes.


Week 1:

Theory of casting and solidification, Fluidity of liquid metals.

Week 2:

Technology of patternmaking and mouldmaking, Pattern allowances, Testing of molding sand, cores.

Week 3:

Gating system design,  Risering Design, different methods of calculating riser volume, Feeding distance calculations.

Week 4:

Theory of melting and production of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, Casting design, Casting defects.

Week 5:

Mechanical fundamentals of metalworking: Concept of stress and strain, stress and strain tensors, Hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses, Flow curve.

Week 6:

Yield criteria for ductile materials, plastic stress strain relationships, classification of metalworking, mechanics of metalworking.

Week 7:

Analysis and classification of rolling and forging processes, Force calculations in rolling and forging processes.

Week 8:

Analysis and classification of Extrusion process, Analysis of wire, rod and tube drawing processes, Forming defects.

Week 9:

Classification of welding processes, Thermal effects in welding, Basic metallurgy of fusion welds, Heat affected zone in welding.

Week 10:

Principles of welding processes: Arc welding, Gas metal arc welding, Solid state welding, Resistance welding, Soldering, Brazing and adhesive bonding.

Week 11:

Residual stresses in welding, Methods of measurement of residual stresses in welding, Welding distortion and its types, Methods of reducing residual stresses and distortion in welding.

Week 12:

Weldability of materials: Introduction and assessment of weldability, Test for weldability, Weldability of ferrous and non-ferrous materials.


1.Ghosh, A., and Mallik, A.K., Manufacturing Science, Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd. 
2.Heine, R.W., Loper, C.R., and Rosenthal, P.C., “Principles of Metal Casting”, TMH 
3.Dieter Feorge E., “Mechanical Metallurgy”, McGrawHill 
4.Kuo, S., “Welding Metallurgy”, John-Wiley & Sons Inc

  • The exam is optional for a fee.
  • Date and Time of Exams: April 28 (Saturday) and April 29 (Sunday) : Afternoon session: 2pm to 5pm
  • Exam for this course will be available in one session on both 28 and 29 April.
  • Registration url: Announcements will be made when the registration form is open for registrations.
  • The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published.


  • Final score will be calculated as : 25% assignment score + 75% final exam score
  • 25% assignment score is calculated as 25% of average of  Best 8 out of 12 assignments.
  • E-Certificate will be given to those who register and write the exam and score greater than or equal to 40% final score. Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IITRoorkee.It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc.